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METRO 3 vs ENVIRONMENT vs DEVELOPMENT

As we know the Metro-3 project better known as COLABA-BANDRA-SEEPZ metro after lot of opposition from the project affected people and environmentalists, discussions to and fro, protest, etc. the work has finally kicked off. The project affects 5,012 trees of which 1,331 will be cut and 3, 681 of trees will be replanted. 

So, do you think Metro 3 is worth, losing the green cover of the city and Does the concept of underground metro really feasible for Mumbai???

COMMENTS :

From our Team Members

At present Mumbai Suburban Trains (Mumbai Locals) are overcrowded and they carry passengers almost two times more than their designed carrying capacity, this scenario has increased the ratio of train accidents in Mumbai. Metro-III will be boon for the daily commuters as it will reduce the load on Mumbai Locals and also will connect South Mumbai to commercial areas like BKC, Worli, etc., which at present not connected by Mumbai Suburban Rail Network. It will also reduce the travelling time between Southern Mumbai and Western Suburbs. Thus considering the present transport condition of Mumbai, Metro III is must for Mumbai and depending upon the shortage of land in Metropolitan city like Mumbai underground metro is feasible for Mumbai.

Now considering the environmental factors associated with the project, almost 5,012 trees will be affected by Metro III project of which almost 2,298 trees will be affected for construction  of car depot at Aarey colony , considering the ecological importance of Aarey Colony  it can be said that destruction of such a huge number of trees at Aarey will affect the ecology of Mumbai as it is considered as Green Lung of Mumbai , alternatives should be considered for construction of car depot, Aarey Colony is not the feasible place in terms of environment for construction of car depot, destruction of such a huge number of trees for construction of metro should not all be accepted as it will have tremendous effect on ecology.

Metro-III Project should be developed  but only after considering suitable alternative other than Aarey for construction of car depot.

- Rahul


To decongest the city roads and local trains an alternate transit system is definitely the need of time. The Metro-III Project will help in doing so but the project from start itself is in lots of controversy because of its proposed car shed at Aarey Colony which comprises of 2000 hectares stretch of grasslands and forest thickets - The Aarey Forest. The proposed car shed if constructed will totally disturb the natural ecosystem existing in the Aarey forest (also associated ecosystem with it) and in doing so we will only be a step closer on the path of devastation by creating ecological imbalance. Citizens and environmentalist are not opposing the development of the Metro-III, it’s just that the development should take place with due care for environment.

We are well aware of the fact that Mumbai is an island city with an average mean sea level of 14M. The Metro-III line is proposed to be constructed 15-30M underground, which means the underground Metro is highly vulnerable to flooding during monsoon season and whenever the high tide and heavy rains coincide. The Government and the Planning Authorities of Metro-III should be well prepared for the worst scenarios. A proper well-functioning effective structural and environmental management plan will help to avert this crisis and sideline the negative impact of the project.

Combined with this the Government should try to enhance the existing infrastructures by creating more pedestrian footpaths and cycle tracks (a sustainable way) which would benefit to wider section of the population and  allow us to gain maximum benefits from the various developmental projects with due consideration to environment.

- Saranya


Plans for Metro-III will undergo a massive deforestation, no doubt but at the same time the Metro has committed to save the environment rather than only degrading it. This project will prove a balance between environment and development as the public transport system is promoted in the process which is surely going to reduce some pressure on the environment. Once fully commissioned, this project will reduce vehicle trips per day take off almost 6.5 Lakh vehicle trips from the road per day. This means almost 2.5 Lakh litres of fuel saved daily which in turn reduces, the burden on the natural resources and carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere.

We should hope that these commitments should come into reality and not just on the black & white. I deeply believe that in this present scenario of population expansion, care is needed for both Nature & the people.

- Bhavya


Ostensibly to compensate for the tree loss, Mumbai Metro Rail Corporation has engaged a foreigner (who will reportedly be paid Rs 22 Lakhs per month) to manage the tree preservation management plan. Why have local scientists and experts more familiar with the city's ecology been overlooked? 

   Apart from possibly irreversible damage to Mumbai's green lung, Metro 3 on the whole seems to be a poorly planned project.  The transport infrastructure of Mumbai, even Metro 3 and the coastal road project, favours the Western line - how much the needed east-west connectivity of Mumbai improves as a result of Metro 3 is unclear.  Neither will Metro 3 be able to match the cost of existing bus and local train services.  Mumbai is also experiencing a northward migration of both business operations and local population and the metro ridership may have been overestimated. Given the city's low elevation above mean sea level and its propensity to water logging, an underground metro will only escalate the flooding problem.  Metro 3 will also pass under the Mithi River.  Considering the fact that Mumbai lies in the moderate damage earthquake risk zone, the impacts of construction and operational vibration on heritage buildings and buildings with poor structural integrity in certain South Mumbai sections will have to be closely monitored.  There are also issues with regards to the Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport.  The air traffic control tower will be very close to the metro station leading to security issues.  Reports state that passengers will not be allowed to carry check-in baggage on the metro.  Shifting of utility lines to accommodate the underground metro will also be a problem.  The project has already been subject to numerous delays, and escalating costs will be passed to commuters. 

  Even if Mumbai Metro Rail Corporation puts into practice all possible safeguards, time will tell whether an underground metro is feasible for Mumbai - the economic viability of the project will be affected by how much is spent on mitigation measures. 

- Shawna


Mumbai Metro Phase-III is a Public service project to ease the commute of over a million people residing in the Mumbai Metropolitan. It will cut short the daily travel time and provide connectivity from Cuffe Parade to Aarey colony; so this project is another jewel in the crown of Mumbai City. Such glorious publicity makes the common man hope beyond hope that his daily travel battles will reduce drastically.

But when you stop, think and evaluate; the ground reality is far from pleasant. This ambitious project will be constructed in Aarey, a part of the only green lung of Mumbai. Uprooting of trees, construction debris, influx of workers, traffic jams and loud noise due to construction vehicles, drawl from municipal or groundwater supply are just a few major impacts of the Metro-III’s  construction phase, which will take over a year for completion. The Operation phase of this project will worsen the condition in that area, stripping off its green cover and making it just another busy travel route. Construction on other areas on this route has already begun and has led to traffic jams, increased emissions and dust and loud noise in the surrounding areas. This project is hence a pitiable situation wherein the public either chooses to travel like animals on the existing routes or instead sides with the destruction of a wildlife habitat and further increased pollution levels, just so that he can travel better. 

- ROCHELLE


With the upcoming draft Marine and Coastal Regulation Zone (MCRZ) Notification; is the Government not further threatening our only ‘Environment’? A draft Marine and Coastal Regulation Zone (MCRZ) Notification is reportedly in the offing (Source: The Indian Express, 22/03/17) with an objective to remove the ban on reclamation of land in coastal areas for commercial or entertainment purposes while also allowing tourism activities in these ecologically sensitive areas along the shores. Additionally, this notification will remove the necessity of obtaining Environmental Clearances for constructing housing units, and related infrastructure, for the local fishermen community.

Do you believe that the focus should shift in favor of environment rather than on enhancing economy?

COMMENTS :

From our Team Members

I believe that our environment should be considered first because economy will only exists when there will be an environment. This upcoming notification can be modified by incorporating certain light on the conservation of coastal areas due to allowed Tourism activities or related commercial works. This way a balance can be developed between the Environment & the Economy.

- Bhavya


Well its good enough that special provision has been made for the betterment of the local fishermen community through the new draft notification but environmental clearances should be made mandatory irrespective of the communities so as to prevent the coastal areas exploitation from the hands of local builders and developers. For the benefit of local tribes/communities the government can initiate some subsidence schemes or support to promote the growth & welfare of local fishermen community. And by allowing reclamation of land in coastal areas for commercial or entertainment purposes will eventually add more areas to these rapidly growing concrete jungles (urbanization). Not to forget the vulnerabilities of the reclaimed lands to soil liquefaction during earthquakes, subsidence from soil compaction, increased chances of flooding, etc. Tourism in the eco-sensitive areas should be strictly prohibited if preliminary studies shows that there is bound to be a negative impact on the eco-sensitive areas. If human intervention is not controlled then it will lead us on the fast-track of unsustainable development thereby initiating a series of other disastrous events which will completely wipe out the environment (not to forget human beings are a part of environment). If environment doesn't exist who will reap the benefits from the enhanced economy..??

- Saranya


The soon to be published draft Marine and Coastal Regulation Zone (MCRZ) notification is a futile waste of resources which does nothing to protect the fragile Marine and Coastal ecosystem. It is devastating to note the numerous amendments made to the CRZ notification of 2011 such as the amendment made for statues, coastal roads and the new airport in Navi Mumbai, all in the name of “national interest”. Such national interests are just the interests of a select few and not based on the opinions of the whole nation. This new draft notification is just another way of poking holes in the coastal safeguards mentioned in the 2011 CRZ notification. This notification if finalized could cause proliferation of more senseless events, such as the AOL event on the Yamuna banks, and tourism activities like the setting up of shacks in Goa. While the Environment Department mentions that these activities can be permitted in eco sensitive areas after adequate studies, it fails to mention a benchmark for these studies and if these studies are undertaken by economy driven stakeholders with vested interests, would be a completely pointless exercise. While this new notification is being prepared it should be noted that the MoEF has still not finalised all the Eco Sensitive areas and the CZMP maps, a survey which has been under process since over a decade. Instead of focusing on local sustainable eco tourism practices and eco-fortification of the coastline, it is utterly disappointing to see how the economic interests of the privileged few could lead to natural disasters due to the decimation of the natural coastline and marine biodiversity of our beautiful country. 

- Rochelle


The draft notification is yet another move by the government seeking to dilute environmental safeguards. Coastal areas are dynamic ecosystems and human interventions in the form of land reclamation, tourism, etc. have mostly caused their degradation with economic benefit to a few.  At the very least, if environmental clearances are done away with, the notification must incorporate participatory planning with affected fishing communities for new project developments and have stringent norms for studies to be conducted in eco-sensitive areas.

- Shawna


The upcoming Marine and coastal regulation zone (MCRZ) notification will have serious impact on the marine biota, depending upon the environmental importance of certain areas along the shores they are designated as ecosensitive area and are presently included in CRZ I category as per CRZ notification 2011.

Allowing construction in ecosensitive area (along the shore) and removing the ban on reclamation of land in coastal areas for commercial or entertainment purposes will have devastating impact on marine ecosystem and will indirectly impact entire food chain,thus if government is planning to allow construction in CRZ areas , environmental clearances should be mandatory for such projects, which will help in understanding the impact of project and accordingly environmental management plan will be implemented which will prevent the harm on marine ecosystem to some extent.

- Rahul


CONSTRUCTION ON SALT PANS…

The state government is eyeing large chunks of Salt Pans for development. One of the plans is to build 1.5 lakh houses to rehabilitate project-affected persons and slum dwellers. It also wants to build houses for middle and higher income people to solve the affordable housing crisis in the city. Maharashtra has 13000 acres of Salt Pan out of which Mumbai owns 5400 acres. The Centre has decided to shut down salt departments across the country, including Mumbai (the other places are Chennai, Ahmedabad, Jaipur and Kolkata) - (Source: Times of India).

The decision comes at a time when the state government has plans to open up large chunks of these eco-sensitive sprawls in Mumbai for "Affordable Housing". Also many activists have warned of an environmental disaster and also environmentalist remind that the land constitute Mumbai’s last oxygen reservoir and should be left untouched.


So for “Affordable Housing” and rehabilitation of slum dwellers, construction on Salt Pan is the only option with the State Government???? What is your view about this project??

COMMENTS :

From our Team Members

MUMBAI an alpha world city, an important trade center, an industrial hub and has high influx of people into the city. On one side it’s on the superfast track of industrialization and urbanization on the flip side the urbanization (read as concretization) has left it with very little open space. And now the decision of the State Government to use Salt Pan (which are “no development zone” as per Coastal Zone Regulation) for construction will squeeze off the oxygen (fresh air) from the city. Mumbai an island city which is bounded by the Arabian sea coast and also many parts of the city is just above sea level. The Salt Pan acts as a buffer zone between the Arabian Sea and the mainland of the city by holding excess water during monsoon. Construction on these lands will worsen the chronic problem of flood during monsoon as water will not have any passage to move out of the city. As a matter of fact, Mumbai has already paid its price for replacing the mangroves with concrete structures planned haphazardly (remember the 26 th July 2005 flooded Mumbai…????).

In addition to acting as buffer zone, Salt Pans acts as dwelling sites for various local birds and migratory birds, thus construction will destroy their habitats. Salt Pans are made out from the mangrove areas, so regeneration of mangroves can happen there which will benefit even if salt is not produced from the Salt Pan in future.

Construction works on Salt Pan need to be properly and well managed as the land is delicate (since it’s a buffer zone), it contains the corrosive substance like sodium chloride, sulphur which can easily corrode of the structure, thereby weakening the foundation. And if the foundation is weak, we are aware of the consequences it’s like “Building a house on sand”. Also for stabilization of the Salt Pan will take years, which will ultimately shoot-up the project cost than the estimated cost. For stabilization, reformation of the Salt Pan will be done which will disturb the sea-bed because of its proximity of the sea and will affect the marine environment and threaten their eco-system.

Till the project develop into reality the native dwellers (slum) will be reaped off. The development is planned to rehabilitate the slum dwellers by creating new slum dwellers which in any way makes no sense….

So instead of investing heavily on a projects which weighs down too much on the negative side, the State should make and put effort in proper utilization of existing lands, waste lands and infrastructure so that there will be Sustainable Development.

- Saranya


Salt Pan act as a buffer zone between land and water it acts a barrier to prevent water to enter in the city from sea, also Salt Pans are most favorable place for migratory birds like flamingoes Presently Salt Pan due to its fragile properties towards environment are considered under CRZ 1 areas, but government’s move to use Salt Pan as infrastructure developmental site will not only harm this ecological important areas, but increase chances of flood in the city. If this plan gets final approval and housing projects come on Salt Pan there are chances that Mumbai can even face big flood than 26 july 2005.

Providing affordable housing is good step of government, but by disturbing Salt Pan is not at all acceptable. Salt Pan should be developed as ecotourism site not as infrastructure developmental site.

- Rahul


To cater to its exploding populations, the Indian Central and State Governments eye any land parcel that is undeveloped, hence now they look to develop Salt Pans. CRZ and Eco-sensitive Zone violations have already occurred and now the Salt Pan lands are being targeted. The ease of construction in these areas would be quite low since the salty soil is not suitable for construction. This would mean remediation of soil would have to be done which will incur huge costs which will be passed on to home buyers eventually, so this won’t be a case of affordable housing. Also these Salt Pans lie in CRZ areas which means for such 'affordable housing' the CRZ rules will be further diluted. instead of destroying undeveloped lands it should undertake redevelopment of existing structures and focus on vertical building growth rather than horizontal growth.

While it is noble of the government to think of providing affordable housing for all, it should rather focus its energy on national population reduction strategies to ensure no additional environmental load is caused in the future.

- Rochelle


River Linking Project

KEN-BETWA River Linking Project has got Phase-1 clearance from National Board of Wild life (NBWL). Some Environmentalist are protesting this project and planning to challenge this clearance in NGT.

It is believed that almost 7 Lakhs Trees,90 Sq. Km. of Panna Tiger Reserve and Bird Nesting Sites will be submerged in the project, on the other side, it is said that this project may benefit the severely drought affected areas and also water will be used for irrigation and generation of electricity.

What is your view related to this project does linking both the river is the only solution for drought affected area?

COMMENTS :

From our Team Members

The KEN-BETWA River Project is recent example of Human-Animal Conflict, as on the one side project proponents are considering it as one of the efficient method for mitigating drought in the severely drought affected regions of Bundelkhand on the other side Environmentalist and Wild Life Conservationist consider it as serious threat to wild life and birds.

Ken and Betwa both are tributaries of river Yamuna, linking them will definitely solve drought problem in the regions of Bundelkhand. It is a known fact that there is severe drought in the regions of Bundelkhand from past many years and it has led to increase in migration, suicide of farmers and local residents. Activities to combat drought should have thought earlier, now linking the river will surely improve drought condition but it will affect wild life and ecological balance of the location.

Ultimately linking of any river by submerging wild life reserve is not the sustainable method to mitigate drought, alternatives should have been thought earlier when drought was not so severe.

- Rahul



The highly ambitious and hyped up project of linking the River Ken and River Betwa, so as to provide water supply to the drought hit Bundelkhand region, has recently been cleared by the National Board of Wildlife, much to the surprise of all Environmentalists. This will without a doubt cause flooding of the Panna Tiger Reserve through which the rivers will be connected. In addition to threatening the habitat of tiger's and vulture nests, the entire ecosystem of this reserve will be endangered as well, causing these species to venture into human settlement areas and sparking more human-animal conflict controversy.

This being a government led project, it is focused more on a political agenda rather than an environmental one. Would the linking of these rivers be sustainable? NO. What happens when the presently surplus water of the Ken River begins to reduce in the future? Would they suggest that all rivers in the country be connected then?

An alternative such as moving human settlements from arid regions to regions of ample water supply is more logical; after all, that is what the Aryan civilization did centuries ago. They didn't modify the river flow, but moved to the river banks instead. Man needs to bend to nature's will rather than vice versa. If politically driven agendas are what will drive the environmental clearances in India, then it won’t be long before all natural ecosystems are wiped out for the ever increasing greed of human civilizations.

- Rochelle



Interlinking of rivers in India is a concept which is riding on the hopes that it will mitigate drought, flood and scarcity of drinking water. Here in Ken-Betwa case, on one side its mitigating the drought stricken areas of Bundelkhand and its nearby regions on the other side there is high probability of it flooding the Panna tiger Reserve (where initiatives were taken to protect Tigers from poaching as their population was declining) and bird nesting places thereby threatening their biodiversity. In addition to that, it will be disturbing the river's natural ecology.

In present scenario we are facing the consequences of climate change and global warming which is altering the Earth's climate pattern, whereby raising a question whether there will be continuous supply of water from the donor basin(Ken River)..? So even in future we are not sure that interlinking of the rivers will surely mitigate the drought crisis in Bundelkhand and in its nearby areas,thus the whole plan of interlinking goes for a toss. The best is instead of investing crores of rupees on a project which is not sure to reap its benefits, the Government should focus on areas like efficient use of the current water resources, promoting canal and drip irrigation,promoting storage of water which provides flexibility in use of water by reviving age old practices like use of tanks for storing water, etc.

- Saranya



The Ken-Betwa River-link Project is crucial for the future of drought-prone areas of the Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. It will not only help in ensuring water supply for irrigation and drinking purposes but also generate huge amount of electricity. There are some ecological concerns but the National Water Development Agency (NWDA), which is looking after the project, believes they could be minimized with proper planning and implementation.

The project will ensure availability of water in the drought-prone areas of UP and MP. It will also provide water for irrigating 6 Lakhs hectares of land per year and drinking water to about 13.42 Lakhs people in the region. The Environment Ministry had pointed out that the Phase-1 of the project itself would lead to loss of 59.03 Sq.Km. of Critical Tiger Habitat (CTH) of Panna Tiger Reserve as this area would submerge. There would also be an indirect loss of 105.23 Sq.Km. of CTH because of fragmentation and loss of connectivity.Appropriate mitigating measures should be suggested to maintain the ecology of the areas which will be severely affected by this project.

- Pratibha



Culling of animals declared 'vermin' under the Wildlife Protection Act

India‟s wild animals today run the risk of being added to a Central Government approved, kill list‟ if State governments insist that they be classified as vermin or animals causing nuisance. Such requests are made in cases where the State Government believes that the animal in question may cause damage to crops, property or people unless the population is culled through selective killing.

The legal backing for such steps comes from Section 62 of the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972. Section 62 reads as under:

Declaration of certain wild animal to be vermin.

The Central Government may by notification, declare any wild animal other than those specified in Sch. I and part 11 of Sch H to be vermin for any area and for such period as may be specified therein and so long as such notification is in force, such wild animal shall be deemed to have been included in Sch.V.

Including an animal within Schedule V of the Wildlife Protection Act deprives it of any legal protection under the Act. Currently, the Nilgai in Bihar, Wild Boar in Uttarakhand and Rhesus Monkey in Himachal Pradesh have been declared vermin in these respective states and permission has been given by the Central Government to cull their populations. Additional proposals from Maharashtra (peacock) and Gujarat (nilgai) are currently under consideration. The primary reasons being given by states for such culling being required is the destruction of crops. The Hindu in a report has stated

The crop-raiding species is found on acres of agricultural fields in riverine areas of the Ganga and Gandak basins. Bihar’s farmers, especially in Bhojpur, Buxar, Saran, Champaran, Gopalgunj, Siwan, Sasaram, Munger, Bhagalpur, Begusarai and Patna districts, have been demanding a licence from the State government to cull the blue bulls.

In situations such as these, culling the animals that attack crops seems to be a fairly logical step to take. Fewer nilgai, for instance, will almost inevitably mean that a lesser amount of crop is lost to them.

However, there has also been a massive uproar amongst people and members of the Central Government which have stated that measures such as culling are an irresponsible way to try and implement population control among animals. There have been suggestions from experts suggesting that it is necessary to understand population dynamics of animals better before undertaking any drastic measures like culling and that factors ranging from habitat loss to fall in predator population to drought may have been causes that led to the present human-animal conflict.

Do you agree with culling as an option to control the population of animals that may be causing damage to people and crops? Are there any alternative methods that can be used instead of culling? Are there other aspects to such human-animal conflict that we may bemissing before our decision to cull animals? Discuss both sides of the problem with examples to elucidate your point wherever possible.

Comments :

From our Team Members

Wildlife and Human conflicts are rapidly increasing mainly because of loss of wildlife habitat, climate change and human encroachments. The severity of such conflicts in India, has caused states to recommend drastic measures such as culling of Nilgai, Wildboar and Rhesus Monkey, which the Centre has accepted and has accordingly modified the Wildlife Protection Act 1972. Natural selection and Survival of the Fittest are two important theories which form the basis of ecological balance. While many believe this recent move is a desperate attempt at killing wildlife and causing ecological imbalance, it should be understood that killing of pests (vermin) like rats and cockroaches has been common practice since decades, so why is it ok to kill rodents and save larger species? The mentality of killing wildlife by deeming them vermin based on impact to humans is a malpractice that needs to change, since this mentality is what has largely caused ecological imbalance.

Selective culling of such animals while effective is only a short term strategy which may cause docile populations to become violent. Hunters could be at high risk of losing their lives while attempting to cull the “vermin”. What is required is a thorough study of the reasons behind the increase in these populations and complete understanding of the predator prey dynamics before any detrimental actions are undertaken. Instead of killing, alternatives like sterilization and animal deterrents must be utilized. Sterilization has proven successful in controlling dog populations in the city. Animal deterrents such as barbed electric fences or species-specific deterrent pheromones/audio should be researched and implemented accordingly. Implementing the „shoot at sight order‟ for such newly classified vermin may cause them to become endangered or extinct species in the future. Also, more importantly, promoting trigger friendliness may 'backfire' on the every increasing human population.

- Rochelle



Human-animal conflict its not a new phenomenon and we will be facing a lot of such conflicts in the coming years, as we humans think that the planet and its resources are for us only. Culling of animal to control its population is not the solution to the question. Culling is not effective in the long term as the species will eventually repopulate the area and if the culling is not controlled the outcome can lead to ecological imbalance. We humans dont have right to decide which animal can live or die on this planet but here we forget that even humans are animal all created by the god. If culling of animal is moral then why not culling of humans, since sometime over, humans will dominate the planet so there will come a time where our own race will threaten our lives??? Also evidence suggest that some creatures such as deer can keep their own numbers down without the need for culling. Alternatives can be used such as relocation of the animal to zoo or carrying out sterilization but this all will take time and proper effort from the management. But again this all is going to put pressure on government in terms of fund, proper management and cooperation and timely action.

- Saranya



As ministry of environment and forests (MoEF) has declared certain wild animals as vermin and gave permission to kill certain species of animals if state government asks for it, (By taking the backing from section 62 of the wildlife protection act, 1972), though there is a provision under wild life act to allow culling of wild animals if they are harming crops or local people, But culling of animals for human benefit should not be accepted.

Blue bull (Nilgai) are herbivores, and they normally depend on grazing the food they eat are small bushes and grasses, reports indicates that blue bulls have harmed many crops in Northern India , there have been severe economical lose due to Nilgai. The reason behind the tremendous increase in the number of wild animals like Nilgai and Wild boar is disturbance in the food chain, Nilgai are one of the most attractive species of food for carnivores like Tiger, Lion etc. The decrease in number of carnivores has indirectly increased the number of herbivores like Nilgai, Wild boar, Peacock etc. This is mainly because humans have exploited forest which were available in these developmental edge, thus it has led to increase in Human-Animal conflict. Alternatives should be incorporated other than culling can such as Rehabilitation of these types of animals in the forest area. Culling is not the ultimate option, as we are killing certain animals we are disturbing ecological cycles so efforts should be made to choose appropriate alternative first, rather than culling. Culling should be last and least preferred option.

- Rahul

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