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BS Emission Standards and its Impacts on Environment
By Rahul Yadav

Bharat stage (BS) emission standards are established by Government of India to normalize the productivity of air pollutants from internal combustion engine equipment of vehicle. This standards are set by Central Pollution Control Board under the guidance of Ministry of Environment & Forests and climate change .

The higher the BS standard the lower is pollution emission from vehicle .For example, the Euro 1 or BS I emits more amount of toxic gases than Euro 2 or BS II. The harmful emissions that are identified for regulations in different Bharat Stages (BS) are carbon monoxide (CO), unburnt hydrocarbons (HC), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) and Particulate matter (PM).  PM is more prevalent in diesel engines and long term exposure to it can harm the respiratory tract and reduce lung function. Another difference between each standard is the sulphur content. For example, BS-IV fuels contain far less sulphur than BS-III fuel. Sulphur in fuel makes it dirtier and lowers the efficiency of catalytic converter which controls emissions.



History of Emission norms in India
The first stage of emission norms came into force for petrol vehicles in 1991 , From April 1995, mandatory fixture of catalytic converters were made in new petrol passenger cars sold in the four metros, Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai .

In the year 2000, passenger cars and commercial vehicles met Euro I equivalent India 2000 norms. Euro II equivalent Bharat Stage II norms were in force from the year 2001 onwards in Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata.

The first Auto Fuel Policy was announced in August 2002 which layed down the Emission and Fuel Roadmap up to 2010. As was given in the roadmap, four-wheeled vehicles moved to Bharat Stage III emission norms in 13 metro cities from April 2005 and rest of the country moved to Bharat Stage II norms.

Bharat Stage IV for 13 Metro cities was implemented in April 2010 onwards and the rest of the country moved to Bharat Stage III.

India aims to comply with BS VI standards equivalent to Euro VI emission standard by April 2020.

The following tables shows the emission norms for different vehicles:

Emission norms for passenger cars (Petrol)

Norms CO (g/km) (HC+NOx) (g/km)
19991 Norms 14.3-27.1 2.0 (Only HC)
1996 Norms 8.68-12.40 3.00-4.36
1998 Norms 4.34-6.20 1.50-2.18
Bharat Stage -I 2.72 0.97
Bharat Stage -II 2.2 0.57
Bharat Stage - III 2.3 0.35 (combined)
Bharat Stage -IV 1.0 0.18 (combined)

Emission norms for Heavy Diesel vehicles

Norms CO (g/km) HC (g/kwhr) NOX (g/kwhr) PM (g/kwhr)
19991 Norms 14 3.5 18 -
1996 Norms 11.2 2.4 14.4 -
Bharat Stage-I 4.5 1.1 8.0 0.36
Bharat Stage -II 4.0 1.1 7.0 0.15
Bharat Stage -III 4.0 1.6 5.0 0.10
Bharat Stage -IV 1.5 0.96 3.05 0.02

Emissions Norms for 2/3 wheelers (Petrol)

Norms CO (g/km) (HC+NOx) (g/km)
1991 Norms 12-30 8-12 (only HC)
1996 Norms 4.5 3.6
Bharat Stage -I 2.0 2.0
Bharat Stage -II 1.6 1.5
Bharat Stage - III 1.0 1.0

Supreme Court judgment about BS IV emissions

On 29th March , 2017, the Supreme court of India passed a judgment where sale or registration of BS III vehicles were said to stop in all the part of country from 1st April 2017 and auto mobile manufactures were ordered to comply with BS IV emission standards .

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